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Murray River at Murray Bend

This land has been home to the Bilyidar Bindjareb Nyungar people for tens of thousands of years and are embraced as the traditional owners. Pinjarra (Pinjarrah) was given its name by its traditional owners meaning “place of swamp”.  It was one of the earliest areas of European settlement in Western Australia and has a rich pioneering history bursting with stories to tell. In 1829, Thomas Peel received a land grant in Pinjarra along the Murray River giving hope to the development of agriculture in Western Australia due its abundant soils. By 1834, word had spread about the rich loamy soils and pastures, bringing more Europeans to the areas with the township being established. [Shire of Murray 2020].


The foremost intent of this page is to introduce the first Redcoats – soldiers of the British Army – to arrive in the Murray District of what was generally known as the Swan River Colony, yet to be declared ‘Western Australia.’ Those first soldiers came from England on Sulphur or Marquis of Anglesea in 1829 and Eliza and Orelia in 1830 and Isabella 1831. They served with the No. 2 Company, 63rd Regiment. These soldiers and those of the 21st, 51st and 96th Regiments would populate the Murray or Pinjarra military posts from July 1830 to 1850.

About the Records

Although the first soldiers were ‘on the ground’ in the Swan River Colony from June 1829, the first records reflecting their arrival in Australia were written in Hobart, Van Diemen’s Land where the main body of 63rd soldiers was garrisoned. Thus the soldiers of the Swan River Colony were identified in the VDL records, but not by specific location within the new colony until the 25th March 1830 monthly musters and pay lists. The Murray detachment is first identified from 25th July 1830, the names mentioned below, but of course there could have been soldiers in the area prior to that date.

Soldiers were most likely assisting in land surveys conducted by early surveyors under the guidance of surveyor Naval Lieutenant John Septimus Roe in all the areas where land grants existed. Among them were 63rd Privates Terence Sheridan, Walter Burke and Francis Burke in January 1830 [Cons 36 Vol. 4/132].

The first seven men of the 63rd to be recorded in the musters and pay lists specifically at the Murray Military Post from 25th July 1830 to at least the end of the year, were Sergeant John Smallman and Privates Richard Bonsall, Michael Grady, Henry Hickman, Jonathan Jenkins, George Massell and Henry Wheatley. They would be joined by Lieutenant Archibald Erskine, Colour Sergeant Edward Barron and five rank and file at various times during this period [WO12-7262 folios 250 to 256].

The River

The Murray River in southwest Western Australia starts below Mount Keats at an elevation of 187m and flows into the Indian Ocean. It drops around 189m over its 134km length. Ten creeks and rivers flow into the Murray River. The five longest tributaries are: Hotham River, Williams River, Long Gully, Swamp Oak Brook and Yarragil Brook.

Thomas Peel and Clarence

Cousin Thomas, or the swan river job [The Wordsworth Collection, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, purchased 2010].
Plenty has been written about Thomas Peel, his dreams of wealth in a new land, and his nightmares as it all went wrong; I cannot add anything new. By the time Thomas was on the high seas with his three ships and over 500 emigrants aboard, his influential cousin Robert, had been Britain’s Home Secretary for a second time for 18 months or more and was headed for his first term as Prime Minister. The satirists loved it.

Passengers of Thomas Peel’s ships Gilmore, Hooghly and Rockingham disembarked on Clarence beach. This area was selected from Peel’s 250,000 acre grant to be a townsite of 1280 acres for the immigrants and Peel’s indentured servants. For over 170 years it was believed the site was at Woodman Point, about ten kilometres south of Fremantle. However, archaeological findings (2007) show that the settlement may have been at Mt Brown, about eight kilometres further south, now labelled Peel Town by the State Heritage Council. Other historians support that the first settlement identified as Clarence was at Woodman Point and the area excavated at Mt Brown was a small settlement made by people moving away from the initial camp in 1830 [Statham-Drew & James].

Stirling’s Map of Western Australia, Journal of Royal Geographic Society 1832

The The Hillman Plan drawn in 1836 does not help clarify the issue. Although it has to be said that Clarence was named for the Duke of Clarence who was also the Earl of Munster for whom Lake Munster, in the immediate vicinity, was named. It was perhaps ironic that at the time Clarence and Lake Munster were named he was Prince William, but in June 1830 after all Peel’s settlers had arrived at Clarence, the Prince became King William IV. There were January 1830 surveys of Cockburn Sound conducted by R Clint, G Smythe and H C Sutherland (the latter unpublished) but Clarence is not marked as a township.

Records exist of 63rd Regiment Privates John McDonald and Patrick Swift posted at Clarence from December 1831 to the end of March 1832, albeit McDonald is listed as sick in March [WO12-7263 folios 192/193 and 7264 folio 1887]. There seems to have been no official ‘barracks’ and the men would probably have resided in tents along with the settlers. Whatever the truth of the siting – it was a catastrophic failure. In the first year some 40 settlers died of scurvy, dysentery, or other ailments and six from childbirth; drunkenness, fighting and despair were the social consequences. The majority of the deceased were buried in the vicinity and a number later re-interred in the Alma Street Cemetery, Fremantle.

Florishing (sic} State of the Swan River Thing (Clarence) by William Heath 1830s [National Library of Australia]. The ship Rockingham is in the background.
Sources listing passenger numbers on Peel’s ships and the resultant number of settlers at Clarence vary greatly from 495 to 580 and how many were children? It has been cited that 215 children were on the settlement [Rikkers] and proposed their schooling could have begun with teachers Lancelot Taylor Cooke and Mrs Mary Ann Pengilly (wife of John) both arriving on Gilmore. This, of course, is pure speculation.

I have never found a list of those passengers indentured or otherwise financially beholden to Peel. However, it appears that by the time the last of Peel’s flock had arrived, a number of men petitioned magistrates at Fremantle to release them and their families from Peel’s contracts on the basis of non-payment of wages. By July 1830, 22 men had been released from their contracts [WASRO Acc. 36, Vol 7]. This seems to have been the beginning of the end of Peel’s aspirations and by October he was appealing to the Governor about what he saw as interference in his affairs at the Settlement. Stirling (in part) responded, Had the Magistrates given a contrary order and compelled your people to remain in your Service they would have acted illegally for such an order would have been equivalent to Sentence of Death by Starvation [Richards:48].

Early European Settlers at the Murray

In July 1830 Dr Collie, the surgeon on HMS Sulphur, reported on the situation at Clarence, and indicated, there are… 12 men and one family of seven persons [Armstrong] at Murray River [CO18-7-137]. A variety of sources suggest that these were probably all indentured to Peel:
Gilmore Dec 1829
Adam Armstrong, Clerk, wife and six children. John Pengilly (Pengelly), carpenter, wife and two children
Hooghly Feb 1830
John Wolland, labourer, single
Rockingham May 1830
William Adams, labourer, wife and two children. Richard Betts (Bates), labourer, wife and five children. William Edwards, labourer, wife and four children. Thomas Eacott, labourer, wife and one child. William Ledgard, single. Samuel Martin, labourer, wife and three children. John Parsons, labourer, wife and four children. George Read, sawyer/labourer, wife and five children. Robert Robinson, labourer, wife and one child. John Tuckey, servant, widower with two children.

Military Matters

Perth Gazette 18 Oct 1834

The first British Army detachment in Western Australia (the 39th at Kings George’s Sound) was ostensibly to discourage the French from claiming settlement in the West. In March 1831 when Isabella arrived at KGS with 63rd troops (recently from Hobart) to replace the last of the 39th, Stirling’s Swan River Colony was entrenched sufficiently to forget about the French! The soldiers in the Colony were now viewed as the ‘law and order’ force required to keep the peace, act as mail and people escorts as the government and settlers’ business was established, and to protect settlers from the unrest beginning to surface from the indigenous population. In September 1833 the 21st Regiment arrived and in April 1834 the 63rd was on its way to Madras, India.

It would be almost 20 years before a police force in the Colony was established, but in the intervening years a constabulary system and a mounted force were formed. On 15th July 1834, the Governor raised the Colony’s first Mounted Police Corps. That year it comprised former officers, an NCO, rank and file of the British Army and some settlers. Others would join later and the unit was disbanded in September 1837. The veteran soldiers were: Theophilus T Ellis (formerly Lieut. 14th Light Dragoons and Capt. 1st Royal Surrey Militia), Superintendent.  Assistant Superintendents were Richard Goldsmith Meares (formerly Capt. 2nd Life Guards), and Alexander Cheyne (formerly Capt. Royal Engineers). The others were Edward Barron (Head Constable), and Constables James Dobbins, Patrick Hefron, Michael O’Brien and John Stanton (all formerly 63rd West Suffolk Regiment) [CO18-18-237].

The Triggers Leading to the Confrontation at Pinjarra

The first civilian to be killed in the Murray River district was George McKenzie who had received a land grant of fifty acres on the Murray. The 19-year old had arrived on Peel’s ship Gilmore with £80 in his pocket to build a roof over his head and farm his land. In a seemingly unprovoked attack on 17th July 1830, young McKenzie was speared by natives and died. Possibly the first white man to be killed by a native’s spear in the Colony, he was buried in the graveyard behind the barracks at Soldier’s Cove in Mandurah [Hasluck:225]. It was thought that this attack was payback for the punishment of natives by settlers at Clarence a few days earlier. McKenzie’s father tried to get reimbursement of his son’s investment and the return of his personal effects from Thomas Peel by an approach to the Colonial Office. Although George McKenzie has been described as a Clerk to Peel [Berryman:161], it is unlikely that McKenzie senior received any recompense for his son’s investment.

Musters & Pay Lists [WO12-7264-212]
Private George Budge 63rd Regiment was the first military casualty in the Murray district when he was killed by aborigines on 6th August 1832. Unfortunately, Thomas Peel relied on someone’s personal recollections of Budge’s death and the date on the plaque is the death date for Private Thomas Farmer who drowned in the Swan River. As a result of several published anomalies regarding Budge’s death, the misinformation has become entrenched as fact in printed and online publications [Kenton]. The Western Australian Colonial News reported, another 63rd soldier speared at the Murray River without apparent cause. The soldier was on sentry duty when ambushed by a number of natives who transfixed him with sixteen spears. This referred to Budge.

By 1834 there were many instances of clashes between the settlers, soldiers and natives resulting in wounding and death in many areas of the Colony. Among the soldiers was the death of Private Denis Larkin, 21st Regiment, who was speared near the barracks in Upper Swan on 4th May 1834 [Blackburn:47].

The Missing Mare

On the 15th July 1834, Edward Barron, late 63rd Regiment Colour Sergeant, went to Mandurah to acquire a mare from Thomas Peel. Unfortunately the mare had disappeared – wandered off into the bush, it was thought. Two natives known to Peel were asked to go in search of the animal, but coming up empty handed, said they would go out again if Peel accompanied them. Did Peel have a premonition of danger at this point? In any event he refused, loaning a mount to Private Hugh Nesbit, the servant of 21st detachment Lieutenant Armstrong, who would accompany Barron. Barron would have been familiar with the Murray River country as well as the habits of the natives, having been stationed in the area for several months between August and December 1830 [WO12-7262].

Perth Gazette 26 Jul 1834

Barron had reason to feel uncomfortable about sightings of several small parties of natives in the vicinity and suggested to Nesbit that they should turn back. Nesbit, in hindsight, was more trusting – even naïve (see left). He enlisted in the army at Kilmarnock, Scotland in January 1832 aged 18, thus was certainly no older than 21 when he lost his life. Barron heard the sound of the natives shipping their spears and called out to Nesbit, turning his own horse around, galloping quickly back to the Peel settlement. The ambush left Barron seriously wounded by three spears. Nesbit was unhorsed after a spear hit the animal. Nesbit died sometime after a third spear struck him; his body was found in a badly mutilated condition the next day. The search party was horrified to find more than thirty wounds on the body, Nesbit’s head mangled and crushed by savage blows [Hasluck:150]. Nesbit’s terrier’s howling alerted his whereabouts to the search party – the dog had followed his master on the search for the missing mare.

The general consensus was that the mare had been lured into the bush by the natives in the hope that Peel could be persuaded to follow; the black mare was dead before they even began the quest to find her. Barron recollected that the attack on him was possibly a payback for his killing of a native in 1831 when the Mandurah Barracks had been attacked.

The settlers were greatly concerned by this turn of events. Spontaneous incidents had occurred before, but this was the first occasion on which a settler (sic) friendly to the Aborigines had been lured into the bush and murdered. [Green:83]. Calyute, a veteran warrior of the Murray River, was involved. Even the most forgiving members of the community were supportive of punitive action. This would be some weeks coming owing to some decision-making delays and logistical difficulties involving the Governor’s absence at King George’s Sound and bad weather.

For more detailed versions of the Nesbit affair, refer to Hasluck 1965, Richards 1978, Green 1981 and Blackburn 1999 referenced in the sources below.

A Punitive Expedition?

There is also much written material relating to the Battle of Pinjarra, contemporary and all the years since, in the form of books, diaries, newspaper reports, etc. but of course, only one of the protagonists had a written language and even they cannot agree on the detail of who was there, how many died, nor how many were injured. I won’t enter the fray.

Perth Gazette 1 Nov 1834

This, however, is the tally of the Governor’s ‘team’ (left), recorded by Surveyor General John Septimus Roe in his Field Book #3, and confirmed in the Perth Gazette. It was ostensibly to be a party from Perth to Pinjarra for the purpose of surveying the district for a new settlement for Thomas Peel and the building of barracks for a small military post. However, if along the way, they might encounter the natives involved in the death of Private Nesbit, so much the better. All were armed except Surveyor Roe.

Perth Gazette 11 Nov 1834

A relic of this affair which interests me greatly is a song written about the Pinjarra incident and circulated in November 1834 (right) in the taverns of Perth and Guildford. If a copy could be found anywhere it would now be worth a fortune. Newspaper references to this song, ‘The Jackets of Green’ are listed in sources below. The green jacket was the uniform of the Mounted Police Corps led by Captain Theophilus Ellis.

Over a year after the affair, justifications for the punitive expedition were attached to a letter from Governor Stirling despatched to the Colonial Office (letter No. 14) in February 1836 [Blackburn:60].

Leadership in Black and White

Calyute (Galute, Kalyute, Galyute) of the Murray River Tribe
Nothing seems to have been written about Calyute prior to 1833; an aboriginal leader, he was a man of the Pinjareb group. He and his people flourished in the Murray River area until 1840. His brothers Woodan and Yanmar are recorded and he had at least two wives, Mindup and Yarnup, and two sons Ninia and Monang [Green:ADB].

Perth Gazette 14 Jun 1834

Calyute and his fellow Murray River tribesmen came to the attention of the authorities (and indeed natives of a tribe upon whose land they were encroaching) in April 1834. Calyute led a party in a daring raid on George Shenton’s flour mill in South Perth and helped themselves to much of the flour. The party was pursued by Superintendent of Native Tribes, Captain T T Ellis, and soldiers of the 21st Regiment to Mandurah where Calyute and three others were apprehended and taken back to Perth. The four were detained overnight while the Executive Council made its decision on punishment. It was to be a flogging for all of them, with Calyute as leader receiving 60 lashes despite his bayonet wound from resisting arrest at his capture. Calyute was taken to Fremantle jail (The Round House) and there incarcerated from the beginning of May until released by order of the Lieutenant Governor Richard Daniell on 10th June 1834. Captain Ellis was at Fremantle to personally escort him off the premises! {Errington:30]. Within a few months Calyute and Ellis would meet yet again as adversaries.

After the shootings and spearings were over at Pinjarra, Calyute was the loser of many of his tribes people, including his youngest wife Yarnup and his son Ninia. The weakening of his position was a clear message to neighbouring groups – in the short term, he had lost something of his reputation and ability to protect his own people.

Calyute soon recovered his status, and appears in Lord Bunbury’s journal of his time in the Colony. On 16th December 1836 Bunbury left Pinjarra on a previously untraversed route to Vasse. His party consisted of his servant, a soldier of the 21st Regiment and Monang, Calyute’s son [Bunbury:66]. On his return to the Murray district, Bunbury devotes many pages of his journal with observations of Monang as a guide and a man. Ultimately Bunbury meets up with Monang’s father, writing, Calyute is a fine savage looking old man with long waving grey hair and beard, who claims and evidently exerts some authority over the Murray tribe that is the inhabitants of the borders of the Estuary. He has always shown himself hostile to the White Men and altho’ afraid since the affair at Pinjarrup in 1834 to show his enmity in the settlements, he is not at all to be trusted in the bush if an opportunity of revenge presents itself. He often comes with his tribe to Mandurap or Peel Town, where he gives himself great airs and from fear and policy is well received and fed by Mr Peel [Bunbury:156].

Little is known of his [Calyute] later life, but in May 1840 his group attacked a Noongar camp near Perth, spearing five people. There are no other records of Calyute and he is believed to have died at an old age [Wikipedia unreferenced].

London Gazette Issue 15915, p. 540

Theophilus Thomas* Ellis
The London Gazette describes Ellis’s commission in the 14th Light Dragoons (left). I have been unable to identify a record of service for Ellis from the National Archives (Kew) documents.

However, the following information was acquired from the the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI): Theophilus Thomas Ellis served as a Lieutenant in the 14th Light Dragoons as of 08 Aug 1808. He was at the Peninsular War engagements from December 1808 to April 1810, and October 1811 to March 1812. This included the Battle of the Douro or Second Battle of Porto (12th May 1809). He was also engaged in the Battle of Talavera (27-28th July 1809). He was severely wounded at Talavera on the 27th. His war service at the Peninsula in the 14th Light Dragoons is recorded as serving under Field Marshal His Grace the Duke of Wellington on medal roll WO100-2, folios 159/160.

One hundred and two medals with bars were eligible to those who fought in the 14th LD Regiment at Talavera. However, Ellis would never have worn the medal as he was deceased long before its authorisation in 1847 as one of the Military General Service Medals sanctioned by Queen Victoria and issued in 1848 [Gordon:34].

Ellis retired with the rank of Lieutenant in July 1812, his commission purchased by Cornet Henry White [LG 25 Jul 1812]. Ellis’s whereabouts is unknown for the next eight years – he presumably returned to Dublin, the residence of his family. He then received a Commission in the 1st Regiment of Royal Surrey Militia, signed by the Lord Lieutenant of the County of Surrey. Theophilus Ellis, Esq. to be Captain. Dated 14th April 1820. [LG 4 Jul 1820]. Unfortunately, I have been unable to locate a record of Ellis retiring from the militia.

Ellis, his sister Mary Bolger and her children boarded the brig James, from Liverpool, at Kingstown, Dublin on 18th December 1829. Ellis’s description of the voyage and shortcomings of the Captain Edward Goldsmith were lengthy and this is just a small sample: I found her crowded with passengers [of] the class of labourers, men, women and children, whom with passengers taken in at Kingstown, made [with] the ship’s crew 84 persons, and a quantity of sheep, pigs and geese… There was no place for goods, provisions etc. part of our accommodation was filled up with stores and luggage belonging to the ship… There was scarcely enough room for 24 persons to eat and sleep… We therefore suffered great inconvenience and want of air particularly as the height between the decks in the greater part of our cabins is but 4’6″ between the beams and 4′ to the beams instead of 5’6″ as required by Act of Parliament [Henderson:101/2].  James arrived in Fremantle on 8th May 1830. The brig was wrecked and sunk at James Rocks (south of the South Fremantle Powerstation} on 21st May 1830. This American ship built in 1812 is now a protected Federal vessel.

The Township of Kelmscott was gazetted on 6 July 1830. Initially the townsite served as a military outpost to protect the early settlers and explorers. When seeking to fill the position of Government Resident, Ellis appeared to fit the bill and he was appointed on 10th September 1830 at an annual salary of £100.

The Deceased Defendant, Perth Gazette 21 Sep 1835

Ellis immediately had problems with John Atkinson who was appointed to survey the town. Atkinson’s work was clearly hopeless, causing the perfectionist Ellis a great deal of angst with both Stirling and Roe. A correct and complete survey was cruicial to the sale of land and development of the area and Ellis was pressed to provide land without survey. Worse, Atkinson left for Tasmania with his work unfinished and bad-mouthed Ellis in the Hobart press. Ellis selected for himself 2746 acres of land in the Avon District at York on 22nd January 1831, and also purchased Town Lots 19 to 22 in Kelmscott.

At Kelmscott Ellis found himself dealing with incidents between natives, settlers and soldiers and perhaps because of his experience with the disputes, was appointed to the new position of Superintendent of Native Tribes in 1833.

Ellis, of course, as Superintendent of the Mounted Police Corps appointed on 15th July 1834, led a party of his five constables, surveyors, settlers and soldiers at Pinjarra in October the same year. Ellis was hit in the temple by a spear, knocked off his mount.and died two weeks later on 11th November at his home close to Mount Eliza in Perth (he moved to Perth in 1832). He was buried at East Perth Cemetery on 12th February 1834.

For more detail of Ellis at Kelmscott. Click here for the page on Kelmscott Military Post.

* In army records Ellis’s second name is given as Thomas; in WA secondary sources it is given as Tighe.  I have no explanation for this anomaly.

Moral Obligation – Before and After Pinjarra

There is much to be said & allowed for the poor Savages. We take possession of their Country, occupy the most fertile parts, where they are in the habit of resorting to for nourishment, destroy their fishing & Kangaroo, & almost drive them to starvation, & they naturally consider themselves entitled to our Sheep & Stock whenever they can get hold of them… [Fremantle:91 (1832)].

The author [Irwin] cannot let this opportunity pass, without calling the attention of the public to the claims which the natives of New Holland have upon it. It must be confessed that to those tribes, hitherto, British example and connexion have, for the most part, been found the very reverse of beneficial. It is impossible for a moment to maintain or vindicate the abstract right of civilized nations to establish themselves in the territories of savage tribes, without, at least, acknowledging that such intrusions involve the settlers, and the nation to which they belong, in deep and lasting responsibilities: in other words, that the latter are bound, by the strongest ties of moral obligation, to assist the natives in accommodating themselves to the great changes they have to undergo; for it is incumbent upon us ever to bear in mind that, by our entry into, and establishment in the country, the natives are gradually deprived of their hunting and fishing grounds, and are consequently forced, unprepared, into new modes of life, and new conditions of society. [Irwin:27 (1835)].

Talk of a Treaty

Among the primary measures which he [the author] is anxious to see adopted, now that we are possessed of a sufficient knowledge of the natives of Western Australia and of their language, the writer would suggest that a formal treaty with them be speedily entered into. As a measure of healing and pacification, he is persuaded it would do much to prevent irritation and heart-burnings, and to promote a permanent good understanding with them. The advantages of such an arrangement could not fail to be shared by both parties.[Irwin:28 (1835)].

Successive Detachments in Pinjarra

I have been unable to locate any official survey plans for the actual position of the ‘barracks’. There is correspondence mentioning the barracks in the archives and at least one author has shown a sketch of the barracks close to the townsite [Richards:190]. Below is a table of first on the post at Murray and then Pinjarra following the departure of the 63rd detachment.

And here is the profile of the Pinjarra Barracks built in 1841 for the 51st Regiment’s benefit, written by the State Heritage Council of WA. This site in the Murray Shire has been on its municipal inventory since 2011.  The ‘history’ section of the page is somewhat confusing because the site relates to the barracks built in 1841 and closed in 1852, yet refers to William Bunbury who was the Lieutenant in charge of the 21st Regiment detachment from his arrival in the Colony at the end of March 1836 and returned to England in November the following year.

Deaths of Soldiers in the Murray District

Perth Gazette 2 Feb 1839


George Budge, 63rd Regiment, 6 Aug 1832 speared by natives.
Hugh Nesbit, 21st Regiment, 16 Jul 1834 speared by natives.
James Brady, 21st Regiment, 28 Jan 1839 suffocation – swallowed a live fish!
Richard Hofton, 51st Regiment, 5 Apr 1842 cause of death unknown.
Daniel Astley, 51st Regiment, 4 May 1844 apoplexy.
John Franklin, 96th Regiment, 10 Sep 1848 drowned.

Budge and Nesbit Memorial. See paragraph above re death date of Budge


Ron Richards, author of the Murray District, who in a talk organised by the FHWA Convict Group at St John’s Church, Pinjarra, inspired me to add the Murray-Pinjarra Military Post to my website pages. His book was also an inspiration – very well written and sourced at a time when it was not easy to access historical records.

Wendy Durant, Curator of Rockingham Museum, who was my only option in sourcing and allowing a long-term loan of Ron’s book. It is now a rarity on public library shelves and, even when available, not always for loan.

As always Sally Kenton, researcher extraordinaire of all things 63rd Regiment and British Army records and conventions in general. Sally always finds for me the things that others have missed about her specialty regiment in Western Australia.

Sources and Bibliography

Books, Journals & Websites
Aborigines and white settlers in the nineteenth century, Neville Green, 1981 (Stannage).
The archaeology of Clarence, Shane Burke 2007, RWAHS Early Days, vol. 13, no.1: 145-163.
Arrivals and Departures Swan River Colony 1826 to 1838 CD ROM.
Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB), Australian National University.
British Battles and Medals, Major L L Gordon, 5th edition (E C Joslin), 1979.
A Colony Detailed, the First Census of Western Australia 1832, Ian Berryman, 1979.
Conquest and Settlement, The 21st Regiment in Western Australia, Geoff Blackburn, 1999.
Diary & Letters of Admiral Sir C H Fremantle, GCB Relating to the Founding of the Colony of
Dictionary of Western Australian Vol. 1, Early Settlers 1829-1850, Pamela Statham, 1979.
Early Days in Western Australia, Being the Letters and Journal of Lieut. H W Bunbury, ed. 1930.
The enigma of Clarence: Woodman Point or Mount Brown, Pamela Statham-Drew & Ruth Marchant James 2008,
RWAHS Early Days, vol. 13, no. 2: 173-196.
InHerit Place Number 03117,  Heritage Council of WA website.
Military Establishment in Western Australia 1829-1863, E S and C G S Whiteley, 2010.
Murray District of Western Australia: a history, Ronald Richards, 1978.
Monument Australia, Clarence Settlement Memorial, 1st June 2002 website.
Not An Idle Man, A Biography of John Septimus Roe, J L Burton Jackson, 1982.
The Round House 1831-1856, Steve Errington, 2022.
Royal United Services Institute (RUSI), service record of Theophilus Thomas Ellis.
State and Position of Western Australia, Captain Fredk Chidley Irwin, 1835. (Republished 2019.)
Superintendent Theophilus Ellis – his Life and Services, Peter Conole, WA Police Historical Society website.
Thomas Peel of Swan River, Alexandra Hasluck, 1965.
Unfinished Voyages: Western Australian Shipwrecks 1622-1850, Graeme Henderson, 1980.
Western Australia 1829 pp.91-92., Hazell, Watson & Viey, 1928.
Western Australian Schools 1830-1980 (Part 1), John Rikkers, Education Department 1984.

Archives – WA State Record Office and National Library of Australia
Clarence Survey January 1830 [Cons 36 vol 4 folio132].
The Hillman Plan of Clarence [Cons 3868, Item 068].
Depositions by Thomas Peel (p.96) and Edward Barron pp.101-106) re death of Hugh Nesbit [CSR 33].
Field Book #3 1834-1838, District Perth, Murray, Captain J.S. Roe [Cons 3401].
Mounted Police Corps Colonial Office Despatches CO18-18-237, 1834.
Monthly Returns for Distribution of Ships WO17 for 1837 to 1850.
National Library Catalogue 1132229 Items 136-139; 142-143; 152-158; 284, Survey Maps.
War Office General Orders WO28-266 for 1842 to 1850.
War Office Musters & Pay Lists WO12-7262/7264, 3802, 6202, 9620 for 1830 to 1849.
Western Australia Musters/Census 1830 [SLWA Q.994.1],1832 [CO18-10-110 to 145], 1836 [CO18-16-213 to 217], 1837 [CSO Vol.58].

Newspapers and Gazettes
London Gazettes (LG) 1806 to 1820 – Army career of Theophilus T Ellis.
Western Colonial News 11 Aug 1832 – death of George Budge.
Perth Gazette (PG) 14 Apr 1834 – Peel’s residence ‘Mandura House’ for let.
Perth Gazette 14 Jun 1834 – Galute (Calyute) released from Fremantle jail.
Perth Gazette 26 Jul 1834 and 2 Aug 1834 – murder of Hugh Nesbit.
Perth Gazette 18 Oct 1834 – formation of Perth Mounted Police.
Perth Gazette 1 Nov 1834 – Encounter with the Natives in the Pinjarra District.
Perth Gazette 15 Nov 1834 – death of Captain Ellis.
Perth Gazette 15th Nov 1834 – The Jackets of Green.
Perth Gazette 21 Sep 1835 – Regina vs. Ellis.
Perth Gazette 2 Feb 1839 – death by suffocation – Private James Brady.
West Australian 20 Dec 1937 – The Jackets of Green.

Murray River at Murray Bend [Gerry Ryder,].
Cousin Thomas, or the swan river job [The Wordsworth Collection, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, purchased 2010].
Stirling’s Map of Western Australia, published in Journal of Royal Geographic Society 1832.
Florishing State of the Swan River Thing (Clarence), William Heath 1830s [National LIbrary of Australia].
Budge and Nesbit Memorial [WA Museum Collection CH1970.717].
J S Roe Field Book #3 Cover [WA State Record Office].



© Diane Oldman 2024